Simplifying to the extreme, I define postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives.  This incredulity is undoubtedly a product of progress in the sciences: but that progress in turn presupposes it.  To the obsolescence of the metanarrative apparatus of legitimation corresponds, most notably, the crisis of metaphysical philosophy and of the university institution which in the past relied on it.  The narrative function is losing its functors, its great hero, its great dangers, its great voyages, its great goal.  It is being dispersed in clouds of narrative language elements--narrative, but also denotative, prescriptive, descriptive, and so on. . . .  Where, after the metanarratives, can legitimacy reside?  (The Postmodern Condition, xxix-xxv)


  • Les Transformateurs Lyotard, Collège International de Philosophie et le Centre International d'Etude de la Philosophie Française Contemporaine, département de philosophie, l'Ecole Normale Supérieure, 25 et 26 janvier, 2006
  • Philosophy and Aesthetics: Lyotard and Deleuze, University of Melbourne, Australia, June 22-24, 2005
  • Lyotard and Kant, Dominican College of Philosophy and Theology , Ottawa, November 19-20, 2004




  • Anthologies:
    • The Lyotard Reader and Guide.  Ed. Keith Crome and James Williams.  New York: Columbia UP, 1996.
    • Postmodern Fables.  Trans. Georges Van Den Abbeele.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997.
    • The Postmodern Explained: Correspondence, 1982-1985.  Ed. Julian Pefanis and Morgan Thomas.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1992.
    • La Guerre des Algériens: Écrits 1956-1963.  1988.
      • Political Writings.  Trans. Bill Readings and Kevin Paul Geiman.  Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota P, 1993.
    • Lyotard Reader.  Ed. Andrew Benjamin.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1989.
    • Des Dispositifs Pulsionnels
    • Dérive à partir de Marx et Freud.  1973. 
      • Driftworks.  Partial translation.  New York: Semiotext(e), 1984. 
  • Selected Individual Works:
    • Misère de la philosophie.  Paris: Galilée, 2000.
    • La Chambre sourde: l'Antiésthetique de Malraux.  Paris: Galilée, 1998.
      • Soundproof Room: Malraux's Anti-aesthetics.  Trans. Robert Harvey.  Stanford: Stanford UP, 2001.
    • La Confession d'Augustin.  Paris: Galilée, 1998.
      • The Confession of Augustine.  Trans. Richard Beardsworth.  Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.
    • "Discourse, Figure: Digression on the Lack of Reality."  Architectural Design  132 (1998): 32-33.
      • Signed Malraux.  Trans. Robert Harvey.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1999.
    • L'Assassinate de l'experience par la peinture, Monory
      • The Assassination of Experience by Painting, Monory = L'assassinate de l'experience par la peinture, Monory.  Trans. Rachel Bowlby and Jeanne Bouniort.  Ed. Sarah Wilson.  London: Black Dog, 1998.
    • Toward the Postmodern.  Ed. Robert Harvey and Mark S. Roberts.  Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1993.
    • Leçons sur l'analytique du sublime.  1991.
      • Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime: Kant's Critique of Judgment, 23-29.  Trans. Elizabeth Rottenberg.  Stanford: Stanford UP, 1994.
    • Heidegger et les Juifs.  1988.
      • Heidegger and 'the Jews'.  Trans. Andreas Michel and Mark S. Roberts.  Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota P, 1990.
    • L'Inhumain: Causeries sur le temps.  1988.
      • The Inhuman: Reflections on Time.  Trans. Geoffrey Bennington and Rachel Bowlby.  Stanford: Stanford UP, 1991.
      • Peregrinations: Law, Form, Event.  New York: Columbia UP, 1988.
    • 1986.
      • The Postmodern Explained.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1992.
    • "The Sublime and the Avant-Garde."  1984.
      • The Inhuman: Reflections on Time.  Trans. Geoffrey Bennington and Rachel Bowlby.  Stanford: Stanford UP, 1991.
      • Lyotard Reader.  Ed. Andrew Benjamin.  Oxford: Blackwell, 1989.  196-211.

    • "Presentations."  Philosophy in France Today.  Ed. Alan Montefiore.  Cambridge: CUP, 1983.  116-135.
    • Le Différend.  Paris: Minuit, 1982.
      • The Differend: Phrases in Dispute.  Trans. Georges Van Den Abbeele.  Minneapolis: U. Minnesota P, 1988.
    • La Condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir.  Paris: Minuit, 1979. 
      • The Postmodern Condition: a Report on Knowledge.  Trans. Geoffrey Bennington and Brian Massumi.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1984.
    • Au Juste: Conversations.  1979.
      • Just Gaming.  By Lyotard and Jean Loup Thebaud.  Trans. Wlad Godzich.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1985.
    • 1977.
      • Duchamp's Transformers.  Trans. Ian McLeod.  Venice, CA: Lapis, 1990.
    • 1975.
      • Pacific Wall.  Venice, CA: Lapis, 1990.
    • Économie libidinale.  1974.
      • Libidinal Economy.  Trans. Iain Hamilton Grant.  Bloomington: Indiana University, 1993.
    • Discours, figure.  Paris: Klinksieck, 1971.
      • Discourse, Figure.  Trans. Antony Hudek and Mary Lydon.  Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2011.
    • La Phénoménologie.  Paris: PUF, 1954. 
      • Phenomenology.  Trans. Brian Beakley.  Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.




  • Anthologies:
    • Benjamin, Andrew, ed.  Judging Lyotard.  Warwick Studies in Philosophy & Literature Series. London: Routledge, 1992.
    • Brügger, Niels, Finn Frandsen and Dominique Pirotte, eds.  Lyotard: les Déplacements philosophiques.  Bruxelles: De Boeck-Wesmael, 1993.
    • Dhillon, Pradeep A., and Paul Standish, eds.  Lyotard: Just Education.  London: Routledge, 2000.
    • Harvey, Robert, ed.  Afterwords: Essays in Memory of Jean-François Lyotard.  Occasional papers of the Humanities Institute at Stony Brook.  Stony Brook, NY: Humanities Institute, 2000.
    • Harvey, Robert and Lawrence R. Schehr, eds.  Jean-François: Time and Judgment Yale French Studies 99 (2001).
    • Lambert, Gregg, and Victor E. Taylor, eds.  Jean-François Lyotard: Critical Evaluations in Cultural Theory.  3 Vols.  London: Routledge, 2006.
    • Lyotard, Dolores, Jean-Claude Milner, and Gerard Sfez, eds.  Jean-François Lyotard: l'Exercice du différend.  Paris: PUF, 2001.
    • Peters, Michael, ed.  Education and the Postmodern Condition.  Westport, CT and London: Bergin & Garvey, 1995.
    • Robbins, Derek, ed.  J. F. LyotardLondon: Sage, 2004.
    • Rojek, Chris, and Bryan S. Turner, eds.  The Politics of Jean-François Lyotard.  London: Routledge, 1998.
    • Silverman, Hugh J., ed.  Lyotard: Philosophy, Politics, and the Sublime.  London: Routledge, 2002.
    • Williams, James and Keith Crome, eds.  The Lyotard Reader and Guide.  Edinburgh: U of Edinburgh P, 2006.
  • Selected Individual Works:
    • Bennington, Geoffrey.  Lyotard: Writing the Event.  New York: Columbia UP, 1988.
    • Billouet, Pierre.  Paganisme et postmodernité: J-F. Lyotard.  Paris: Ellipses, 1999.
    • Browning, Gary K.  Lyotard and the End of Grand Narratives.  Cardiff: U of Wales P, 2000.
    • Carroll, David.  Paraesthetics: Foucault, Lyotard, Derrida New York: Methuen, 1987.
    • Crome, Keith.  Lyotard and Greek Thought: Sophistry.  London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
    • Crome, Keith.  "Retorsion: Lyotard and Sophistical Method."  Southern Journal of Philosophy 41.1 (2003): 29–44.
    • Crome, Keith.  "The Sophistications of Philosophy: the Place of Sophistry in Jean-François Lyotard’s The Differend."  Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 32.3 (2001): 277-99.
    • Curtis, Neal.  Against Autonomy: Lyotard, Judgement and Action.  Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
    • Dekens, Olivier.  Lyotard et la philosophie (du) politique.  Collection Philosophie, épistémologie.  Paris: Kime, 2000.
    • Descombes, Vincent.  "The End of Time (Deleuze, Klossowski, Lyotard)."  Modern French Philosophy.  Trans. L. Scott-Fox and J. M. Harding.  Cambridge: CUP, 1980.  168-190.

    • Docherty, Thomas.  "Postmodernist Theory: Lyotard, Baudrillard and Others."  Twentieth-Century Continental Philosophy.  Vol. 8 of The Routledge History of Philosophy.  Ed. Richard Kearney.  London: Routledge, 1994.  474-505.
    • Gallagher, Shaun.  "Conversations in Postmodern Hermeneutics."  Lyotard: Aesthetics and Politics.  Ed. Hugh Silverman.  London: Routledge, forthcoming.
    • Gualandi, Alberto. Lyotard Figures du savoir 17. Paris: Belles lettres, 1999.
    • Gutting, Gary.  "Lyotard."  French Philosophy in the Twentieth Century.  Cambridge: CUP, 2001.  318-331.

    • Kearney, Richard.  Poetics of Imagining: from Husserl to Lyotard.  London: HarperCollins Academic, 1991.
    • Malpas, Simon.  Jean-François Lyotard.  London: Routledge, 2002.

    • Matthews, Eric.  "After Structuralism: Derrida, Levinas, and Lyotard."  Twentieth Century French Philosophy.  Oxford: OUP, 1996.  157-186.

    • Nordquist, Joan. Jean-François Lyotard: a Bibliography.  Santa Cruz, CA: Reference and Research Services, 1991.
    • Pefanis, Julian.  Heterology and the Postmodern Bataille, Baudrillard, and Lyotard.  Durham: Duke UP, 1991.
    • Raffel, Stanley. Habermas, Lyotard and the Concept of Justice.  London: Macmillan, 1992.
    • Readings, Bill.  Introducing Lyotard: Art and Politics.  London: Routledge, 1991.
    • Rogozinski, Jacob.  "Lyotard."  A Companion to Continental PhilosophyEd. Simon Critchley and William R. SchroederOxford: Blackwell, 1998.  574-580.
    • Ruby, Christian.  Les Archipels de la différence: Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, Lyotard Paris: Félin, 1989.
    • Sedgwick, Peter.  "Lyotard: a Postmodern Politics."  Descartes to Derrida: an Introduction to European Philosophy.  Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.  267-281.
    • Sim, Stuart.  Lyotard and the Inhuman Cambridge: Icon / Totem, 2000.
    • Steuerman, Emilia.  The Bounds of Reason: Habermas, Lyotard, and Melanie Klein on Rationality.  Problems of Modern European Thought.  London: Routledge, 2000.
    • Wicks, Robert.  "Jean-François Lyotard, Social Theoretician and Activist."  Modern French Philosophy: from Existentialism to Postmodernism.  Oxford: Oneworld, 2003.  242-256.

    • Williams, James.  Lyotard and the Political: Thinking the Political.  London: Routledge, 2000.
    • Williams, James.  Lyotard: Towards a Postmodern Philosophy.  Cambridge: Polity, 1998.




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